Papers & Publications



van Lieshout L.L.F, Traast I.J, de Lange F.P, Cools R (2019). Curiosity or savouring? Information seeking is modulated by both uncertainty. psyarxiv. [preprint]

Cools, R. (2019). Chemistry of the Adaptive Mind: Lessons from Dopamine. Neuron. [pdf]

Westbrook A, van den Bosch R, Määttä, J.I, Hofmans L, Papadopetraki D, Cools R, Frank MJ (2019). Dopamine Promotes Cognitive Effort by Biasing the Benefits Versus Costs of Cognitive Work. bioRxiv. [preprint]

Papadopetraki D, Froböse MI, Westbrook A, Zandbelt BB, Cools R (2019). Quantifying the cost of cognitive stability and flexibility. bioRxiv. [preprint]

Rățală, C.E, Fallon, S.J, van der Schaaf, M.E, ter Huurne, N, Cools, R , Sanfey, A.G. (2019). Catecholaminergic modulation of trust decisions. Psychopharmacology. [pdf]

van Lieshout L L F, de Lange F P, Cools R. (2019). Motives underlying human curiosity. Nature Human Behaviour. [link]

Westbrook A, Cools R, Braver TS. (2019). Editorial. Special issue on Cognitive Effort. Neuropsychologia. [pdf]

Piray P, Ly V, Roelofs K, Cools R*, Toni I* (2019). Emotionally aversive cues suppress neural systems underlying optimal learning in socially anxious individuals. JNeurosci. [pdf]

Mas-Herrero E, Sescousse G, Cools R, Marco-Pallares J. (2019). The contribution of striatal pseudo-reward prediction errors to value-based decision-making. NeuroImage. [preprint] [pdf]

Rățală CE, Fallon SJ, van der Schaaf ME, ter Huurne N, Cools R, & Sanfey, AG. (2019). Catecholaminergic modulation of trust decisions. Psychopharmacology. [pdf]


van Holst RJ, Janssen LK, van Mierlo K, Lammers G.J, Cools R, Overmeem S, Aarts E. (2018). Enhanced food-related responses in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex in narcolepsy type . Scientific Reports. [pdf]

Frobose MI, Swart JC. Cook JL, Geurts DEM, den Ouden HEM, Cools R. (2018) Catecholaminergic modulation of the avoidance of cognitive control. bioRxiv. [preprint] Journal of Experimental Psychology: General [pdf]

Swart JC, Frank MJ, Määttä JI, Jensen O, Cools R, den Ouden HEM. (2018) Frontal network dynamics reflect neurocomputational mechanisms for reducing maladaptive biases in motivated action. PLOS Biology. [pdf]

Vassena, E., Gerrits, R., Demanet, J., Verguts, T., Siugzdaite, R. (2018) Anticipation of a mentally effortful task recruits Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex: An fNIRS validation study. Neuropsychologia. [link]

Sescousse, G., Ligneul, R., van Holst, R.J., Janssen, L.K, de Boer, F., Janssen, M., Berry, A.S., Jagust, W.J.,  Cools, R. (2018). Spontaneous eye blink rate and dopamine synthesis capacity: Preliminary evidence for an absence of positive correlation. bioRxiv [preprint] EJN. [pdf]

Ojala, K., Janssen, L., Hashemi, M., Timmer, M., Geurts, D., ter Huurne, N., Cools, R.,& Sescousse, G. (2018). Dopaminergic drug effects on probability weighting during risky decision-making. bioRxiv. [preprint] eNeuro. [pdf]

Janssen, L.K., Duif, I., van Loon, I., de Vries, J.H.M., Speckens, J.E.M,Cools, R., &, Esther Aarts. (2018). Greater mindful eating practice is associated with better reversal learning. PsyArXiv. [preprint] Scientific reports. [pdf]

Froböse M, Cools R. (2018). Chemical neuromodulation of cognitive control avoidance. Curr Opinion Behav Sci. [pdf]

Wegman J, van Loon I, Smeets P, Cools R, Aarts E (2018). Top-down expectation effects of food labels on motivation. BioRxiv. [preprint] Neuroimage. [pdf]

Timmer MHM, Sescousse G, Esselink RAJ, Piray P, Cools R (2018). Mechanisms underlying dopamine-induced risky choice in Parkinson’s disease with and without depression (history). Computational Psychiatry. [pdf]

van Holstein, M., Froböse, M.I., O’Shea, J., Aarts, E., &Cools, R. (2018). Controlling striatal function via anterior frontal cortex stimulation. bioRxiv. [preprint] Scientific Reports. [pdf]

van Lieshout, L. L. F., Vandenbroucke, A. R. E., Müller, N. C. J., Cools, R., & de Lange, F.P. (2018) Induction and Relief of Curiosity Elicit Parietal and Frontal Activity. bioRxiv. [preprint] Journal of Neuroscience. [pdf]


van Holst, R., Sescousse, G., Janssen, L.K., Janssen, M., Berry, A.S., Jagust, W.J., Cools, R (2017). Increased Striatal Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Gambling Addiction. Biological psychiatry. [link] [pdf]

Boot, N, Baasa, M, van Gaal, S, Cools, R, De Dreud, C.K.W. (2017). Creative cognition and dopaminergic modulation of fronto-striatal networks: Integrative review and research agenda. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. [pdf]

Swart, J.C, Froböse, M.I, Cook, J.L, Geurts, D.E.M, Frank, M.J, Cools, R*, den Ouden, H.E.M*. (2017). Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action. eLife. [link] [pdf]

Alexander, W, Vassena, E, Deraeve, J, Langford, Z (2017). Integrative Modeling of Prefrontal Cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. [pdf]

Timmer M, Sescousse G, van der Schaaf M, Esselink R & Cools R (2017). Reward learning deficits in Parkinson’s disease depend on depression. Psychol Med. [pdf]

Luijten M*, Schellekens A*, Kühn S, Machielse M & Sescousse G (2017). Disruption of reward processing in addiction: An image-based meta-analysis of fMRI studies. JAMA Psychiatry. [pdf]

von Rhein, D, Beckmann, C.F, Franke, B, Oosterlaan, J, Heslenfeld, D.J, Hoekstra, P.J, Hartman, C.A, Luman, M, Faraone, S.V, Cools, R, Buitelaar, J.K, Mennes, M (2017). Network‐level assessment of reward‐related activation in patients with ADHD and healthy individuals. Human Brain Mapping. [pdf]

Mas-Herrero, E , Sescousse, G , Cools, R , Marco-Pallarés, J (2017). The contribution of striatal pseudo-reward prediction errors to value-based decision-making. bioRxiv. [preprint]

Janssen, L.K, Duif, I, van Loon, I, Wegman, J, de Vries, J.H.M, Cools, R, Aarts, E (2017). Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity. Neuroimage. [pdf]

Piray, P, den Ouden, HEM, Van der Schaaf, ME, Toni, E, Cools, R (2017). Dopaminergic modulation of the functional ventrodorsal architecture of the human striatum. Cerebral Cortex. [pdf]


Winkel, J, Hawkins, G.E, Ivry, R.B,  Brown, S.D, Cools, R, Forstmann, B.U (2016). Focal striatum lesions impair cautiousness in humans. Cortex[pdf]

Fallon SJ, Van der Schaaf ME, ter Huurne N, Cools R (2016). The neurocognitive cost of enhancing cognition with methylphenidate: improved distractor resistance but impaired updating. J Cogn Neurosci. [pdf]

Huys, Q.J.M, Gölzer, M, Friedel, E, Heinz, A, Cools, R, Dayan P, Dolan, R.J (2016). The specificity of Pavlovian regulation is associated with recovery from depression. Psychological Medicine. [pdf]

Von Rhein, D, Oldehinkel, M, Beckmann, C.F, Oosterlaan, J, Heslenfeld, D, Hartman, C.A, Hoekstra, P.J, Franke, B, Cools, R, Buitelaar, J.K, Mennes, M (2016). 
Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. [pdf]

Goldfarb, E.V, Froböse, M, Cools, R, Phelps E.A (2016). Stress and Cognitive Flexibility: Cortisol increases are associated with enhanced updating but impaired switching. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. [pdf]

Gola M, Wordecha M, Marchewka A & Sescousse G (2016). Visual sexual stimuli – cue or reward? A perspective for interpreting brain imaging findings on human sexual behaviors. Front Hum Neurosci. [link]

Culbreth, A.J, Gold, J.M, Cools, R, Barch D.M. (2016). Impaired activation in cognitive control regions predicts reversal learning in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin[pdf]

Spronk, D.B, Van der Schaaf, M, Cools, R, De Bruijn, E.R.A, Franke, B, van Wel, J.H.P, Ramaekers, J.G, Verkes, R.J (2016). Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMT and DRD2 genotype. Psychopharmacology. [pdf]

Spronk, D.B, Verkes, R.J, Cools, R, Franke, B, van Wel, J.H.P, Ramaekers, J.G, De Bruijn, E.R.A (2016). Opposite effects of cannabis and cocaine on performance monitoring. European Neuropsychopharmacology. [pdf]

Ly, V, von Borries, A.K.L, Brazil, I.A., Bulten, B.H, Cools, R, Roelofs, K (2016). Reduced transfer of affective value to instrumental behavior in violent offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. [link]

Ly, V, Bergmann, T.O, Gladwin, T.E, Volman, I, Usberti, N, Cools, R, Roelofs, K (2016). Reduced affective biasing of instrumental action with tDCS over the prefrontal cortex. Brain stimulation. [pdf]

Ma, I, van Holstein, Mies, G, Mennes, M, Buitelaar, J, Cools, R, Cillesen, A.H.N, Krebs, R.M, Scheres, A (2016). Ventral striatal hyperconnectivity during reward inference control in adolescents with ADHD. Cortex. [link]

Bloemendaal, M, Zandbelt, B, Wegman, J, van de Rest, O, Cools, R, Aarts, E (2016). Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition. Neurobiology of Aging. [pdf]

Geurts, D, von Borries, K, Volman, I, Bulten, B, Cools, R, Verkes, R-J (2016). Neural connectivity during reward expectation dissociates psychopathic criminals from noncriminal individuals with high impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. SCAN. [link]

Sescousse, G, Janssen, LK, Hashemi, M, Timmer, M, Geurts, D, ter Huurne, N, Clark, L, Cools, R (2016). Amplified striatal responses to near-miss outcomes in pathological gamblers. Neuropsychopharmacology. [Pubmed] [pdf]

Piray, P, Toni, I, Cools, R (2016). Human choice strategy varies with anatomical projections from ventromedial prefrontal cortex to medial striatum. J Neuro, 36(10): 2857-2867. [link] [pdf]

Cools, R (2016). The cost and benefits of brain dopamine in cognitive control. WIREs Cogn Sci. [pdf]


Aarts, E, van Holstein, M, Hoogman, M, Onnink, M, Kan, C, Franke, B, Buitelaar, J, Cools, R (2015). Reward modulation of cognitive function in adult ADHD: a pilot study on the role of striatal dopamine. Behav Pharmacol, 26(1 and 2-Special Issue), 227-240. [pdf]

Gola, M, Miyakoshi, M, Sescousse, G (in press). Sex, impulsivity and anxiety: interplay between ventral striatum and amygdala reactivity in sexual behaviors. J Neuro.

Bonnefond, M, Riboli-Sasco, L, Sescousse, G (2015). Outside the Tower: Repainting citizen science. Science, 350(6260), 518. [pdf]

Crockett, MJ, and Cools, R (2015). Serotonin and aversive processing in affective and social decision-making. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 5: 64-70 [pdf].

Fallon, SJ, Smulders, K, Esselink, R, van de Warrenburg, BP, Bloem, BR, Cools, R. (2015). Differential optimal dopamine levels for set-shifting and working memory in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia. [pdf]

Van Driel, J*, Swart, JC*, Egner, T, Ridderinkhof, KR, Cohen, MX. (2015). (No) time for control: Frontal theta dynamics reveal the cost of temporally guided conflict anticipation. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural Neuroscience. 10.3758/s13415-015-0367-2. [link]

Janssen, LK*, Sescousse, G*, Hashemi, MM, Timmer, MHM, ter Huurne, N, Geurts, D, Cools, R. (2015). Abnormal modulation of reward versus punishment learning by a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist in pathological gamblers. Psychopharmacology. [link]

Andújar B, Campderrós G, García M, Marino M, Mas M, Narbona L, Pérez L, Rodrigo P, Velásquez AJ, Vilà J, Laguna D, Flutre T,  Bonnefond M, Sescousse G, Riboli-Sasco L. (2015). Twenty tips for high-school students engaging in research with scientists. Front. Young Minds. [pdf]

Cools R. (2015). The cost of dopamine for dynamic cognitive control. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. [pdf]

Neggers SFW, Zandbelt BB, Schall MS, Schall JD (2015). Comparative Diffusion Tractography of Cortico-Striatal Motor Pathways Reveals Differences between Humans and Macaques. Journal of Neurophysiology, doi:10.1152/jn.00569.2014. [link]


Li Y, Sescousse G, Amiez C, Dreher JC. (in press) Local morphology predicts functional organization of experienced value signals in the human orbitofrontal cortex. J Neurosci.

van Rooij D, Hoekstra PJ, Mennes M, von Rhein D, Thissen A, Heslenfeld D, Zwiers MP, Faraone SV, Oosterlaan J, Franke B, Rommelse N, Buitelaar JK, Hartman CA (in press). Neural activation patterns during response inhibition distinguish adolescents with ADHD, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Lozano-Soldevilla D, ter Huurne N, Cools R, Jensen O (in press). GABAergic modulation of visual gamma and alpha oscillations and its consequences for working memory performance. Curr Biol.

Bloemendaal M, van Schouwenburg M, Miyakawa A, Aarts E, D'Esposito M, Cools R (2014). Dopaminergic modulation of distracter-resistance and prefrontal delay period signal. Psychopharm. PDF

Cook J, den Ouden H.E.M, Heyes C & Cools R (in press). The social dominance paradox. Curr Biol.

den Ouden, H, Swart, JC, Schmidt, KS, Fekkes, D, Geurts, DEM, Cools, R (2014). Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour. Psychopharmacology. PDF 

Fallon, SJ, Cools, R (in press). Reward Acts on the pFC to Enhance Distractor Resistance of Working Memory Representations. J Cogn Neurosci. [link]

Ly, V, Huys, Q, Stins, J, Roelofs, K, Cools, R. (in press). Individual differences in bodily freezing predict emotional biases in decision making. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 

Aarts E, Nusselein, AAM, Smittenaar, P, Helmich, RC, Bloem, BR, Cools, R (2014). Greater striatal responses to medication in Parkinson's disease are associated with better task-switching but worse reward performance. Neuropsychologia. [link]

Sescousse G., Li Y., Dreher J-C. (2014) A common currency for the computation of motivational values in the human striatum. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. Pubmed. PDF

Li Y., Sescousse G., Dreher J-C. (2014) Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers. Front Behav Neurosci 2014; 8: 83. Pubmed. PDF

P Piray, Y Zeighami, F Bahrami, A Eissa, D Hewedi, A Moustafa (in press). Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation, J Neurosci. 

Robbins TW, Cools R (2014). Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease: A cognitive neuroscience perspective, Mov Disord, 29(5): 597-607. Pubmed.

Smulders K, Esselink RA, Cools R, Bloem BR (2014). Trait impulsivity is associated with the risk of falls in Parkinson's disease, PLoS One, 9(3). Pubmed.

Chiu YC, Cools R, Aron AR (in press). Opposing Effects of Appetitive and Aversive Cues on Go/No-go Behavior and Motor Excitability, J Cogn Neurosci. Pubmed.

Beeler JA, Cools R, Luciana M, Ostlund SB, Petzinger G (2014). A kinder, gentler dopamine… highlighting dopamine's role in behavioral flexibility, Front Neurosci, Jan 24, 8:4. [link]

Schumann G, Binder EB, Holte A, de Kloet ER, Oedegaard KJ, Robbins TW, Walker-Tilley TR, Bitter I, Brown VJ, Buitelaar J, Ciccocioppo R, Cools R, Escera C, Fleischhacker W, Flor H, Frith CD, Heinz A, Johnsen E, Kirschbaum C, Klingberg T, Lesch KP, Lewis S, Maier W, Mann K, Martinot JL, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Müller CP, Müller WE, Nutt DJ, Persico A, Perugi G, Pessiglione M, Preuss UW, Roiser JP, Rossini PM, Rybakowski JK, Sandi C, Stephan KE, Undurraga J, Vieta E, van der Wee N, Wykes T, Haro JM, Wittchen HU (2014). Stratified medicine for mental disorders, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 24(1):5-50. Pubmed.

Aarts, E, Wallace, DL, Dang, LC, Jagust, W, Cools, R, D'Esposito, M (2014). Dopamine and the cognitive downside of a promised bonus. Psychological Science, doi:10.1177/0956797613517240. [link]

MR van Schouwenburg, AMH Onnink, N ter Huurne, CC Kan, MP Zwiers, M Hoogman, B Franke, JK Buitelaar, R Cools (2014). Cognitive flexibility depends on white matter microstructure of the basal ganglia.  Neuropsychologia, 53: 171-177. Pubmed. PDF

van der Schaaf ME, van Schouwenburg MR, Geurts DE, Schellekens AF, Buitelaar JK, Verkes RJ, Cools R. Establishing the Dopamine Dependency of Human Striatal Signals During Reward and Punishment Reversal Learning. Cereb CortexPubMedPDF



Horschig, JM, Jensen, O, van Schouwenburg, MR, Cools, R, Bonnefond, M (2013). Alpha activity reflects individual abilities to adapt to the environment. NeuroImage,  doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.12.018. Pubmed.

den Ouden, HEM, Daw, ND, Fernandez, G., Elshout, JA, Rijpkema, M, Hoogman, M, Franke, B, Cools, R (2013). Dissociable Effects of Dopamine and Serotonin on Reversal Learning. Neuron, 80: 1-11. [link]

MR van Schouwenburg, HEM den Ouden, R Cools (2013). Selective attentional enhancement and inhibition of fronto-posterior connectivity by the basal ganglia during attention switching. Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht345. PDF 

Dirk Geurts, Quentin Huys, Hanneke den Ouden, and Roshan Cools (2013). Serotonin and aversive Pavlovian control of instrumental behavior in humans. J Neurosci, 33(48): 18932-18939. [link]

Verena Ly, Roshan Cools, Karin Roelofs (2013). Aversive disinhibition of behavior and striatal signaling in social avoidance. SCAN, doi: 10.1093/scan/nst145.  [link]

Marieke E. van der Schaaf, Marcel P. Zwiers, Martine R. van Schouwenburg, Dirk E.M. Geurts, Arnt F.A. Schellekens, Jan K. Buitelaar, Robbert Jan Verkes, Roshan Cools (2013). Dopaminergic drug effects during reversal learning depend on anatomical connections between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Front Neurosci,  7(142), doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00142.  [link] 

D.E.M. Geurts, Q.J.M. Huys, H.E.M. den Ouden, R. Cools (2013). Aversive Pavlovian control of instrumental behaviour in humans. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(9) , 1428-1441. [link]

Schouwenburg, M., Zwiers, M., Schaaf, M., Geurts, D. M., Schellekens, A. A., Buitelaar, J., Cools, R. 
Anatomical connection strength predicts dopaminergic drug effects on fronto-striatal function. 
Psychopharmacology, 227(3), 521-531. doi: 10.1007/s00213-013-3000-5. PubMed.  PDF

Sescousse G & den Ouden HEM. (2013). Gambling Rats and Gambling Addiction: Reconciling the Role of Dopamine in Irrationality. J Neurosci, 33(8), 3256-3258. PDF

van der Schaaf ME, Fallon SJ, ter Huurne N, Buitelaar J, & Cools R. (2013). Working Memory Capacity Predicts Effects of Methylphenidate on Reversal Learning. Neuropsychopharmacology. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.100. PubMed. PDF


Hoogman M, Onnink M, Cools R, Aarts E, Kan C, Arias Vasquez A, Buitelaar J, Franke B. The dopamine transporter haplotype and reward-related striatal responses in adult ADHD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacology [journal impact: 3.7]. PubMed. PDF

van Schouwenburg MR, O'Shea J, Mars RB, Rushworth MF, Cools R. Controlling human striatal cognitive function via the frontal cortex. J Neurosci. [journal impact: 8.7]. PDF

Smittenaar P, Chase HW, Aarts E, Nusselein B, Bloem BR, Cools R. Decomposing effects of dopaminergic medication in Parkinson's disease on probabilistic action selection: learning or performance? Eur J NeurosciencePubmed. PDF

Ragland JD, Cohen NJ, Cools R, Frank MJ, Hannula DE, Ranganath C. CNTRICS imaging biomarkers final task selection: Long-term memory and reinforcement learning. Schizophr Bull. PubMed.

Aarts E, Helmich R, Janssen M, Oyen W, Bloem B, Cools R. Aberrant reward processing in Parkinson's disease is associated with dopamine cell loss. NeuroImagePubMed. PDF

Robinson OJ, Cools R, Carlisi CO, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC. Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. PubMed.

Robinson OJ, Cools R, Sahakian BJ. Tryptophan depletion disinhibits punishment but not reward prediction: implications for resilience. Psychopharmacology. PubMed.



van der Schaaf M, Warmerdam E, Crone E, Cools R. Distinct linear and non-linear trajectories of reward and punishment reversal learning during development: Relevance for dopamine's role in adolescent decision making. Developmental Cognitive NeurosciencePubMed. PDF

Aarts E, van Holstein M, Cools R. Striatal dopamine and the interface between motivation and cognition. Frontiers in PsychologyPubMed. PDF

Hoogman M, Aarts E, Zwiers M, Slaats-Willemse D, Naber M, Cools R, Kan C, Buitelaar J, Franke B. Nitric Oxide Synthase genotype modulation of impulsivity and ventral striatal activity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and comparison subjects. Am J Psychiatr. PubMed. PDF

Cools R. Dopaminergic control of the striatum for high-level cognition. Curr Opin NeurobiolPubMed. PDF

van Holstein M, Aarts E, van der Schaaf M, Geurts D, Verkes R-J, Franke B, van Schouwenburg M, Cools R. Human cognitive flexibility depends on dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Psychopharmacology. PubMed. PDF

Cools R and D’Esposito M. Inverted U-shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control. Biol Psychiatry. PubMed. PDF

Chase HW, Swainson R, Durham L, Benham L, Cools R. Feedback-related negativity codes prediction error but not behavioural adjustment during probabilistic reversal learning. J Cogn Neurosci. PubMed.

Huys, QJM, Cools R, Goelzer M, Friedel E, Heinz A, Dolan RJ, Dayan P. Disentangling the roles of approach, activation and valence in instrumental and pavlovian responding. PLoS Computational Biology.  PDF

De Wit S, Barker RA, Dickinson AD, Cools R. Habitual versus goal-directed action control in Parkinson's disease. J Cogn Neurosci. 23: 1218-29. PubMed.

Cools R, Nakamura K, Daw ND. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews 36: 98-113. PubMed. PDF



Van Schouwenburg M, Den Ouden H, Cools R. The human basal ganglia modulate fronto-posterior connectivity during attention shifting. J Neurosci 30: 9910- 9918. 

Aarts E, Roelofs A, Franke B, Rijpkema M, Fernández G, Helmich RC, Cools R. Striatal dopamine mediates the interface between motivational and cognitive control in humans: Evidence from genetic imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1943-1951.

Van Schouwenburg M, Aarts E, Cools R. Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive control: Distinct roles for the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Curr Pharm Des 16(18): 2026-32. 

Robinson OJ, Frank MJ, Sahakian BJ, Cools R. Dissociable responses to punishment in distinct striatal regions during reversal learning. Neuroimage 51: 1459-1467. 

Robinson O, Standing H, DeVito E, Cools R, Sahakian B. Dopamine precursor depletion improves punishment prediction during reversal learning in healthy females but not males. Psychopharmacology 211: 187-195. 

Robinson O.J, Cools R, Crockett M, Sahakian BJ. Mood State moderates the role of serotonin in cognitive biases. J Psychopharmacology 24: 573-583.

Cools R, Miyakawa A, Sheridan M, D'Esposito M. Enhanced frontal function in Parkinson's disease. Brain 133: 225-33.

Cools R, Rogers R, Barker RA, Robbins TW. Top-down attentional control in Parkinson’s disease: salient considerations. J Cogn Neurosci 22(5): 848-59.



Cools R, Frank MF, Gibbs SE, Miyakawa A, Jagust W, D'Esposito M. Striatal dopamine predicts outcome-specific reversal learning and its sensitivity to dopaminergic drug administration. J Neurosci 29: 1538-1543.

Clatworthy P, Lewis S, Brichard L, Hong Y, Izquierdo D, Clark L, Cools R, Aigbirhio F, Baron J-C, Fryer T, Robbins TW. Dopamine release in dissociable striatal subregions predicts the different effects of oral methylphenidate on reversal learning and spatial working memory. J Neurosci 29(15): 4690-6.

Kehagia A.A., Cools R, Barker R.A., Robbins T.W. Switching between abstract rules reflects disease severity but not dopaminergic status in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia 47(4): 1117-27.

Rajah MN, Bastianetto S, Bromley-Brits K, Cools R, D'Esposito M, Grady C, Poirier J, Quirion R, Raz N, Song W, Pruesnner J (2009). Biological changes associated with healthy versus pathological aging: A symposium review. Ageing Research Reviews 8(2): 140-6. 

Ragland J.D., Cools R., Frank M., Pizzagalli D.A., Preston A., Ranganath C.,Wagner A.D. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Long-term Memory. Schiz Bull, 35(1): 197-212.



Murray GK, Clark L, Corlett PR, Blackwell AD, Cools R, Jones PB, Robbins TW, Poustka L. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: a behavioural study. BMC Psychiatry 8:34.

Dodds C, Müller U, Clark L, van Loon A, Cools R, Robbins TW. Methylphenidate has differential effects on BOLD signal related to cognitive sub-processes of reversal learning. J Neurosci 28(23): 5976-82.

Cools R. Role of dopamine in the motivational and cognitive control of behaviour. Neuroscientist 14(4): 381-95.

Cools R, Gibbs SE, Miyakawa A, Jagust W, D'Esposito M. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum. J Neurosci 28(5): 1208-12. 

Cools R, Roberts AC, Robbins TW. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes. Trends Cogn Sci 12(1): 31-40. 

Cools R, Robinson OJ, Sahakian BJ. Acute tryptophan depletion in healthy volunteers enhances punishment prediction but does not affect reward prediction. Neuropsychopharmacology 33(9): 2291-9. 



Cools R, Sheridan M, Jacobs EJ, D’Esposito MD. Impulsive personality predicts dopamine-dependent changes in fronto-striatal activity during component processes of working memory. J Neurosci 27(20): 5506-5514. 

Cools R, Lewis SGJ, Clark L, Barker RA, Robbins TW. L-DOPA disrupts activity in the nucleus accumbens during reversal learning in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 32 (1): 180-189.



Cools R, Ivry RB, D’Esposito MThe human striatum is necessary for responding to changes in stimulus relevance. J Cogn Neurosci 18: 1973-1983. 

Funkiewiez A, Ardouin C, Cools R, Krack P, Fraix V, Batir A, Chabardès S, Benabid AL, Robbins TW, Pollak P. Effects of levodopa and bilateral STN stimulation on cognitive and affective functioning of cortico-striatal ‘loops’. Mov Disorders 21: 1656-1662. 

Cools R, Altamirano L, D’Esposito M. Reversal learning in Parkinson’s disease depends on medication status and outcome valence. Neuropsychologia 44 (10): 1663-1673.

Roiser JP, Blackwell AD, Cools R, Clark L, Rubinsztein DC, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Serotonin transporter polymorphism mediates vulnerability to loss of motivated action following acute tryptophan depletion. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 (10): 2264-2272. 

Cools R. Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function – Implication for L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30 (1): 1-34.



Cools R, Calder AJ, Lawrence AD, Clark L, Bullmore E, Robbins TW. Individual differences in threat sensitivity predict serotonergic modulation of amygdala response to fearful faces. Psychopharmacology 180: 670-679.

Cools R, Blackwell A, Clark L, Menzies L, Cox S, Robbins TW. Tryptophan depletion disrupts the motivational guidance of goal-directed behavior as a function of trait impulsivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 30 (7): 1362-1373.

Evers EAT, Cools R, Clark L, van der Veen FM, Jolles J, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Serotonergic modulation of prefrontal cortex during negative feedback in probabilistic reversal learning. Neuropsychopharmacology 30 (6): 1138-1147. 

Clark L, Roiser JP, Cools R, Rubinsztein DC, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Stop signal response inhibition in not modulated by tryptophan depletion or the serotonin transporter polymorphism in healthy volunteers: implications for the 5-HT theory of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology 182: 570-578. 



Cools R, Robbins TW. Chemistry of the Adaptive Mind. Philos Transact Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 362 (1825): 2871-2888. 

Cools R, Clark L, Robbins TW. Differential responses in human striatum and prefrontal cortex to changes in object- and rule-relevance. J Neurosci 24: 1129-35.
Clark L, Cools R, Robbins T W. The neuropsychology of ventral prefrontal cortex: Decision-making and reversal learning. Brain Cogn 55: 41-53.



Cools R, Barker R A, Sahakian B J, Robbins T W. L-Dopa medication remediates cognitive inflexibility, but increases impulsivity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia 41: 1431-1441.

Lewis SJG, Cools R, Robbins TW, Dove A, Barker RA, Owen AM. Using executive heterogeneity to explore the nature of working memory deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia 41: 645-652.



Cools R, Clark L, Owen AM, Robbins TW. Defining the neural mechanisms of probabilistic reversal learning using event-related functional MRI.J Neurosci 22: 4563-4567.

Cools R, Stefanova E, Barker RA, Robbins TW, Owen AM. Dopaminergic modulation of high-level cognition in Parkinson’s disease: The role of prefrontal cortex revealed by PET. Brain 125: 584-594.



Cools R, Barker RA, Sahakian BJ, and Robbins TW. Mechanisms of cognitive set flexibility in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 124: 2503-2512. 

Cools R, Barker RA, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands. Cereb Cortex 11: 1136-1143.



Cools R, Brouwer WH, de Jong R, Slooff C. Flexibility, inhibition, and planning: frontal dysfunctioning in schizophrenia. Brain Cogn 43: 108-12.



De Jong R, Berendsen E, Cools R. Goal neglect and inhibitory limitations: dissociable causes of interference effects in conflict situations. Acta Psychologica 101: 379-94



Book chapters

Cools R (2012) Chemical neuromodulation of goal-directed behavior  [pdf]. In: Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain. Eds Peter M Todd, Thomas T. Hills and Trevor W. Robbins. Strüngmann Forum Report, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Cools R, Aarts E, Mehta M (2011). Paradoxical Effects of Drugs on Cognitive Function: The Neuropsychopharmacology of Dopamine and Other Neurotransmitter Systems [ link]. 
In: The Paradoxical Brain. Ed Kapur N. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cools R (2011) Role of striatal dopamine in the fast adaption of outcome-based decisions. 
In: Attention and Performance: Decision making. Eds E Phelps, M Delgado, TW Robbins

Cools R (2010). Short-Term and Working Memory in Humans. 
In: Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. Ed. Ian P Stolerman. Springer‐Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-68706-1. Pp 1233-1237

Cools R and D’Esposito (2010). Dopaminergic modulation of flexible cognitive control in humans. 
In: Dopamine handbook. Eds A Björklund, S Dunnett, L Iversen, S Iversen. Oxford University Press. pp 249-260.

Cools R (2006) Dopaminergic modulation of flexible cognitive control: The role of the striatum. 
In: The neuroscience of rule-guided behavior. Eds. S. A Bunge, J. D.Wallis.

Cools R (2006) Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive flexibility: The role of the striatum. 
In: Mental Dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease III. Eds. E. Ch. Wolters, H.W., Berendse and C.J. Stam. Amsterdam: VU University Press.

Robbins TW, Crofts HS, Cools R, Roberts AC (2004) Catecholamines and Cognition: Bridging the Gap Between Animal Studies and the Clinical Syndromes. 
In: Mental and Behavioral Dysfunction in Movement Disorders. Eds E-A Bedard et al. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ: 183-200.

Cools R and Roberts A. C (2004). The role of dopamine in cognition: Insights from neuropsychological studies in humans and non-human primates. 
In: Prefrontal Cortex: from Synapse to Cognition. Ed. S. Otani: 219-243.

Cools R, Swainson R, Owen AM, Robbins TW (1999). Cognitive Dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson’s disease. 
In: Mental Dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Eds. E.Ch. Wolters, Ph Scheltens, M W Berendse. Utrecht: Academic Pharmaceutical Productions bv.